《大学计算机应用》陆建波【pdf】

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本书是大学计算机基础教学体系的基础部分。主要介绍计算机的基础知识与体系构成、操作系统的基础知识与基本操作,
文字处理软件 Word 2010、电子表格软件 Excel 2010、演示文稿软件 PowerPoint 2010 的基础知识与常用功能,网络基础知识
及网络安全、网页设计与制作、计算思维相关知识。本书以 Windows 7 操作系统为平台,以 Microsoft Office 2010 为基本教
学软件。本书的目标是培养学生计算机应用能力,使其掌握计算机的基本知识,具备利用计算机作为工具为以后的工作和学
习服务的技能。本书内容组织侧重知识的基础性、实用性。本书通俗易懂,知识全面,实例丰富,由浅入深,循序渐进,可
作为高等院校计算机基础教学教材,也可作为自学、函授或培训的教材或参考书。

目录:

第 1 章 计算机基础知识··················································································································1
1.1 计算机概述·························································································································1
1.1.1 计算机的产生与发展 ·····································································································1
1.1.2 计算机的分类 ···············································································································2
1.1.3 计算机的特点及应用 ·····································································································3
1.2 计算机中的数据表示·········································································································5
1.2.1 数值型数据的表示 ········································································································6
1.2.2 英文符号信息的表示 ···································································································10
1.2.3 汉字信息的表示 ··········································································································10
1.3 计算机系统·······················································································································11
1.3.1 冯·诺依曼型计算机 ···································································································11
1.3.2 计算机工作原理 ··········································································································12
1.3.3 计算机硬件系统 ··········································································································12
1.3.4 计算机软件系统 ··········································································································19
1.3.5 计算机性能评价指标 ···································································································20
1.3.6 图灵机 ·······················································································································21
思考题·······································································································································22
第 2 章 操作系统····························································································································23
2.1 操作系统概述···················································································································23
2.1.1 操作系统的概念 ··········································································································23
2.1.2 操作系统的功能 ··········································································································23
2.1.3 常用操作系统简介 ······································································································24
2.2 Windows 7 使用基础········································································································25
2.2.1 计算机的启动与关闭 ···································································································25
2.2.2 Windows 7 桌面 ··········································································································27
2.2.3 窗口的组成与操作 ······································································································32
2.2.4 菜单和对话框的管理操作 ····························································································34
2.3 管理文件和文件夹···········································································································37
2.3.1 文件和文件夹的概念 ···································································································37
2.3.2 使用资源管理器 ··········································································································40
2.3.3 文件和文件夹的基本操作 ····························································································45
·II·
2.3.4 使用库访问文件和文件夹 ····························································································48
2.4 控制面板···························································································································49
2.4.1 打开控制面板 ·············································································································49
2.4.2 使用控制面板 ·············································································································50
2.5 Windows 7 常用程序的使用··························································································71
2.5.1 记事本 ·························································································································71
2.5.2 画图 ··························································································································72
2.5.3 截图工具 ····················································································································73
2.5.4 文件压缩工具:WinRAR ·····························································································74
思考题·······································································································································75
第 3 章 Word 2010 文字处理软件 ·································································································76
3.1 Word 2010 概述················································································································76
3.1.1 Word 2010 的新增功能 ································································································76
3.1.2 Word 2010 的启动与退出 ·····························································································77
3.1.3 Word 2010 的工作窗口 ································································································77
3.2 文档的基本操作和文本编辑···························································································79
3.2.1 文档的基本操作 ··········································································································79
3.2.2 文本编辑 ····················································································································83
3.3 文档格式的编排···············································································································89
3.3.1 视图 ··························································································································89
3.3.2 字符格式 ····················································································································90
3.3.3 段落格式 ····················································································································91
3.3.4 页面版式设置 ·············································································································95
3.4 表格的设计与制作···········································································································99
3.4.1 插入并设置表格 ··········································································································99
3.4.2 美化表格 ··················································································································103
3.5 图文混排·························································································································106
3.5.1 插入并设置文本框 ····································································································106
3.5.2 插入并设置艺术字 ····································································································107
3.5.3 绘制图形 ··················································································································108
3.5.4 剪贴画 ·····················································································································108
3.5.5 插入并设置图片 ········································································································109
3.5.6 “SmartArt”图形 ·····································································································110
3.5.7 图文混排技术 ···········································································································111
3.6 打印文档·························································································································112
3.6.1 打印预览 ··················································································································112
3.6.2 打印设置 ··················································································································113
3.6.3 双面打印 ··················································································································113
3.7 Word 高级应用···············································································································114
3.7.1 目录的创建与编辑 ····································································································114
·III·
3.7.2 审阅修订 ··················································································································116
3.7.3 邮件合并 ··················································································································116
思考题·····································································································································119
第 4 章 PowerPoint 2010 演示文稿 ···························································································120
4.1 认识 PowerPoint 2010 ····································································································120
4.1.1 PowerPoint 2010 简介 ································································································120
4.1.2 PowerPoint 2010 的用户界面 ······················································································120
4.2 PowerPoint 2010 的基本操作·························································································123
4.2.1 新建空白演示文稿 ····································································································123
4.2.2 打开和关闭演示文稿 ·································································································124
4.2.3 保存演示文稿 ···········································································································125
4.2.4 切换演示文稿视图 ····································································································126
4.2.5 处理幻灯片 ··············································································································129
4.3 幻灯片的格式化·············································································································132
4.3.1 文本的设置与排版 ····································································································132
4.3.2 图片的插入与设置 ····································································································136
4.3.3 音视频的插入与设置 ·································································································141
4.4 幻灯片的版式设计与制作·····························································································143
4.4.1 选用幻灯片自带的主题版式 ·······················································································143
4.4.2 使用母版制作版式 ····································································································145
4.5 幻灯片的动画效果设置·································································································149
4.5.1 设置幻灯片的切换动画 ······························································································150
4.5.2 为幻灯片中的对象设置动画效果 ················································································152
4.5.3 设置超链接 ··············································································································156
4.6 幻灯片的放映、打印与发布·························································································161
4.6.1 幻灯片放映前的设置 ·································································································161
4.6.2 放映幻灯片 ··············································································································165
4.6.3 打印演示文稿 ···········································································································166
4.6.4 发布演示文稿 ···········································································································167
4.6.5 打包演示文稿 ···········································································································168
4.7 制作 PPT 的常用思路····································································································171
4.7.1 提取内容 ··················································································································171
4.7.2 搭建骨架 ··················································································································171
4.7.3 制作模板 ··················································································································171
4.7.4 制作导航页 ··············································································································173
4.7.5 制作基本内容页 ········································································································174
4.7.6 制作封底和封面 ········································································································174
4.7.7 精细化加工 ··············································································································174
4.7.8 幻灯片审阅 ··············································································································175
思考题·····································································································································175
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第 5 章 电子表格制作软件 Excel 2010······················································································176
5.1 电子表格概述·················································································································176
5.1.1 电子表格处理的基本概念 ··························································································176
5.1.2 Excel 2010 的启动和退出 ···························································································178
5.1.3 Excel 2010 的工作窗口 ······························································································178
5.1.4 工作簿、工作表、单元格 ··························································································181
5.2 Excel 2010 工作簿的创建与保存··················································································182
5.2.1 工作簿的创建 ···········································································································182
5.2.2 工作簿的打开 ···········································································································183
5.2.3 工作簿的保存 ···········································································································184
5.2.4 工作簿的保护 ···········································································································184
5.3 数据输入·························································································································187
5.3.1 单元格的选定 ···········································································································187
5.3.2 基本输入 ··················································································································188
5.3.3 快速填充数据 ···········································································································190
5.3.4 设置数据有效性条件 ·································································································191
5.4 格式化工作表·················································································································194
5.4.1 插入单元格、行、列 ·································································································194
5.4.2 删除单元格、行、列 ·································································································195
5.4.3 复制和移动单元格 ····································································································198
5.4.4 合并/拆分单元格 ·······································································································199
5.4.5 调整行高和列宽 ········································································································200
5.4.6 设置数据格式 ···········································································································200
5.4.7 设置字体 ··················································································································201
5.4.8 设置对齐方式 ···········································································································201
5.4.9 添加边框和底纹 ········································································································202
5.4.10 使用条件格式 ·········································································································204
5.4.11 自动套用格式 ·········································································································207
5.5 管理工作表·····················································································································208
5.5.1 选定工作表 ··············································································································208
5.5.2 重命名工作表 ···········································································································208
5.5.3 插入新的工作表 ········································································································209
5.5.4 移动和复制工作表 ····································································································210
5.5.5 从工作簿中删除工作表 ······························································································211
5.5.6 隐藏行和列 ··············································································································211
5.6 数据计算·························································································································214
5.6.1 运算符及其优先级 ····································································································214
5.6.2 公式 ························································································································215
5.6.3 函数 ························································································································217
5.6.4 Excel 引用 ················································································································222
5.7 数据管理和分析·············································································································224
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5.7.1 数据列表 ··················································································································224
5.7.2 数据排序 ··················································································································225
5.7.3 数据筛选 ··················································································································227
5.7.4 分类汇总 ··················································································································230
5.8 数据图表化·····················································································································232
5.8.1 图表的组成 ··············································································································232
5.8.2 图表的创建 ··············································································································234
5.8.3 图表的编辑 ··············································································································236
思考题·····································································································································239
第 6 章 网络基础知识及网络安全 ······························································································240
6.1 计算机网络概述·············································································································240
6.1.1 计算机网络的定义和分类 ··························································································240
6.1.2 网络的基本组成与功能 ······························································································241
6.1.3 网络的拓扑结构与传输介质 ·······················································································243
6.1.4 小型局域网组建 ········································································································246
6.2 Internet 基础 ···················································································································250
6.2.1 Internet 的起源与发展 ································································································250
6.2.2 TCP/IP 协议 ·············································································································251
6.2.3 IP 地址与域名系统 ····································································································252
6.3 因特网的基本服务·········································································································254
6.3.1 WWW 服务 ··············································································································254
6.3.2 FTP 服务 ··················································································································257
6.3.3 E-mail 服务 ··············································································································259
6.3.4 即时通信服务 ···········································································································260
6.3.5 搜索引擎服务 ···········································································································261
6.3.6 文献检索 ··················································································································262
6.3.7 网络存储(云存储) ·································································································264
6.3.8 博客和微博 ··············································································································265
6.4 无线网络·························································································································266
6.4.1 无线网络概述 ···········································································································266
6.4.2 无线通信技术 ···········································································································266
6.4.3 无线局域网 ··············································································································266
6.5 网络与信息安全·············································································································269
6.5.1 网络安全概述 ···········································································································269
6.5.2 防火墙技术 ··············································································································269
6.5.3 信息时代的信息安全 ·································································································271
6.5.4 计算机病毒与防治 ····································································································274
思考题·····································································································································277
第 7 章 网页设计与制作··············································································································278
7.1 网页制作基础·················································································································278
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7.1.1 网站相关概念 ···········································································································278
7.1.2 HTML 基础 ··············································································································280
7.1.3 网站设计步骤 ···········································································································282
7.1.4 Dreamweaver 简介 ·····································································································283
7.2 创建和管理网站·············································································································286
7.2.1 创建本地站点 ···········································································································286
7.2.2 站点的编辑 ··············································································································286
7.2.3 建立站点结构 ···········································································································287
7.3 添加页面元素·················································································································287
7.3.1 插入文本 ··················································································································287
7.3.2 插入图像 ··················································································································289
7.3.3 创建超链接 ··············································································································290
7.3.4 多媒体 ·····················································································································291
7.4 CSS 样式表·····················································································································294
7.5 页面布局·························································································································298
7.5.1 表格布局 ··················································································································298
7.5.2 CSS+DIV 布局 ··········································································································300
7.6 模板与库项目·················································································································304
7.6.1 模板网页 ··················································································································304
7.6.2 库项目 ·····················································································································305
思考题·····································································································································307
第 8 章 计算思维概述··················································································································308
8.1 计算思维·························································································································308
8.1.1 科学思维 ··················································································································308
8.1.2 什么是计算思维 ········································································································309
8.1.3 计算思维的应用 ········································································································311
8.2 程序基础·························································································································313
8.2.1 高级程序设计基础 ····································································································313
8.2.2 抽象 ························································································································319
8.3 数据结构与算法基础·····································································································320
8.3.1 数据结构基础 ···········································································································320
8.3.2 算法基础 ··················································································································324
8.4 计算文化·························································································································331
思考题·····································································································································333
参考文献 ·········································································································································334

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