《Organic Chemistry:Second Edition》夏淑贞,罗一鸣,冯文芳【pdf】

《Organic Chemistry:Second Edition》夏淑贞,罗一鸣,冯文芳【pdf】插图

Contents
Chapter 1 Introduction ..............................................................................................................(1)
1.1 Organic Compounds and Organic Chemistry ............................................................(1)
1.2 Bonding in Organic Compounds................................................................................(2)
1.3 Attractions between Molecules................................................................................(10)
1.4 Classification and Reaction Types of Organic Compounds.....................................(12)
1.5 Acid-Base Theory....................................................................................................(14)
Additional Problems.........................................................................................................(17)
Chapter 2 Alkanes and Cycloalkanes ..............................................................................(19)
2.1 Alkanes....................................................................................................................(19)
2.2 Cycloalkanes............................................................................................................(35)
Essay:Radical in Biology, Medicine and Industry.........................................................(47)
Additional Problems.........................................................................................................(48)
Chapter 3 Alkenes and Alkynes .........................................................................................(50)
3.1 Structure of Alkenes and Alkynes............................................................................(50)
3.2 Nomenclature of Alkenes and Alkynes....................................................................(52)
3.3 Cis-Trans Isomerism in Alkenes..............................................................................(54)
3.4 Electronic Effect ......................................................................................................(57)
3.5 Resonance Structure.................................................................................................(60)
3.6 Physical Properties of Alkenes and Alkynes............................................................(62)
3.7 Chemical Properties of Alkenes and Alkynes..........................................................(64)
3.8 Conjugated Dienes...................................................................................................(76)
Essay:Terpenes—Naturally Occurring Alkenes.............................................................(78)
Additional Problems.........................................................................................................(79)
Chapter 4 Aromatic Compounds ........................................................................................(82)
4.1 Benzene:Structure and Bonding............................................................................(82)
4.2 Nomenclature of Aromatic Compounds ..................................................................(84)
4.3 Physical Properties of Aromatic Compounds ..........................................................(85)
4.4 Chemical Properties of Aromatic Compounds.........................................................(86)
4.5 Fused-Ring Aromatic Hydrocarbons .......................................................................(94)
4.6 Aromaticity — Hückel Rule....................................................................................(96)
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Organic Chemistry(Second Edition) ·2·
Essay:Cancer and Carcinogens......................................................................................(97)
Additional Problems.........................................................................................................(99)
Chapter 5 Enantiom erism ...................................................................................................(102)
5.1 Enantiomers...........................................................................................................(103)
5.2 Measurement of Optical Activity...........................................................................(105)
5.3 Representation of Enantiomer—Fischer Projection Formula................................(107)
5.4 Nomenclature of Enantiomer.................................................................................(108)
5.5 Stereoisomers with Two Chiral Carbon Atoms......................................................(110)
5.6 Enantiomers without Chiral Carbon Atoms...........................................................(112)
5.7 Enantiomers in Cyclic Compounds........................................................................(113)
5.8 Properties of Enantiomer .......................................................................................(114)
5.9 Resolution of Enantiomers.....................................................................................(115)
5.10 Reform of Chiral Molecules and Biological Function.........................................(116)
Essay:Stereoisomerism in the Biological World..........................................................(118)
Additional Problems.......................................................................................................(119)
Chapter 6 Halohydrocarbons ............................................................................................(122)
6.1 Classification and Nomenclature of Halohydrocarbons.........................................(122)
6.2 Physical Properties of Halohydrocarbons..............................................................(124)
6.3 Chemical Properties of Halohydrocarbons............................................................(125)
Essay:Naturally Occurring Organohalogen Compounds.............................................(137)
Additional Problems.......................................................................................................(138)
Chapter 7 Alcohols, Phenols, and Ethers .....................................................................(142)
7.1 Alcohols.................................................................................................................(142)
7.2 Phenols...................................................................................................................(153)
7.3 Ethers.....................................................................................................................(161)
7.4 Epoxides.................................................................................................................(164)
7.5 Sulfur Analogues of Alcohols and Ethers:Thiols and Sulfides...........................(168)
Essay:Measuring Blood Alcohol..................................................................................(171)
Addition Problems..........................................................................................................(172)
Chapter 8 Aldehydes and Ketones .................................................................................(175)
8.1 Classification and Nomenclature of Aldehydes and Ketones ................................(175)
8.2 Structure of Aldehydes and Ketones......................................................................(177)
8.3 Physical Properties of Aldehydes and Ketones......................................................(178)
8.4 Chemical Properties of Aldehydes and Ketones....................................................(178)
Essay:Some Biological Nucleophilic Addition Reaction.............................................(189)
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Contents ·3·
Addition Problems..........................................................................................................(190)
Chapter 9 Carboxylic Acids and Substituted Acids ...................................................(193)
9.1 Carboxylic Acids....................................................................................................(193)
9.2 Hydroxy Acids.......................................................................................................(202)
9.3 Keto-Acids.............................................................................................................(206)
Essay:Food Preservatives.............................................................................................(207)
Additional Problems.......................................................................................................(208)
Chapter 10 Derivatives of Carboxylic Acids .................................................................(211)
10.1 Classification and Structure of Carboxylic Acid Derivatives......................................(211)
10.2 Nomenclature of Carboxylic Acid Derivatives....................................................(211)
10.3 Physical Properties of Carboxylic Acid Derivatives............................................(214)
10.4 Chemical Properties of Carboxylic Acid Derivatives..........................................(214)
10.5 Urea and Barbiturates ..........................................................................................(221)
Essay:N-nitrosamines in Drinking Water.....................................................................(223)
Additional Problems.......................................................................................................(224)
Chapter 11 Amines ................................................................................................................(227)
11.1 Classification and Nomenclature of Amines........................................................(227)
11.2 Structure of Amines..............................................................................................(230)
11.3 Physical Properties of Amines .............................................................................(232)
11.4 Chemical Properties of Amines............................................................................(233)
11.5 Aromatic Diazonium Salts...................................................................................(239)
11.6 Alkaloids..............................................................................................................(244)
Essay:Local Anesthetics and cocaine...........................................................................(245)
Additional Problems.......................................................................................................(246)
Chapter 12 Spectroscopy of Organic Compounds ...................................................(250)
12.1 General Principle of Absorption Spectra..............................................................(250)
12.2 Ultraviolet-Visible Spectra...................................................................................(252)
12.3 Infrared Spectra....................................................................................................(256)
12.4 Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectra..................................................................(265)
12.5 Mass Spectrometry...............................................................................................(277)
Essay:Magnetic Resonance Imaging............................................................................(279)
Additional Problems.......................................................................................................(281)
Chapter 13 Heterocycles ....................................................................................................(283)
13.1 Classification and Nomenclature of Heterocycles...............................................(283)
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Organic Chemistry(Second Edition) ·4·
13.2 Structure and Properties of Five-Membered Aromatic Heterocycles ..................(284)
13.3 Structure and Properties of Pyridine and Pyrimidine...........................................(288)
13.4 Fused-Heterocyclic Compounds..........................................................................(291)
13.5 The Sulfa Drugs...................................................................................................(292)
Additional Problems.......................................................................................................(293)
Chapter 14 Carbohy drates .................................................................................................(296)
14.1 Classification and Nomenclature of Carbohydrates.............................................(297)
14.2 Monosaccharides..................................................................................................(297)
14.3 Disaccharides and Polysaccharides......................................................................(307)
Essay:Diabetes and Low-Calorie Sweeteners..............................................................(311)
Additional Problems.......................................................................................................(313)
Chapter 15 Lipids ...................................................................................................................(315)
15.1 Fats and Oils—Triacylglycerols ..........................................................................(315)
15.2 Waxes...................................................................................................................(320)
15.3 Phospholipids.......................................................................................................(321)
15.4 Steroids ................................................................................................................(325)
15.5 Steroid Hormones ................................................................................................(329)
Essay:Errors in the Metabolism of Fatty Acids-Lorenzo ’ s Oil.....................................(331)
Additional Problems.......................................................................................................(332)
Chapter 16 Amino Acids, Peptides and Proteins .......................................................(334)
16.1 Amino Acids........................................................................................................(334)
16.2 Peptides................................................................................................................(344)
16.3 Proteins................................................................................................................(349)
Essay:Sickle Cell Anemia—A Biochemical Disease and Mad Cow Disease..............(358)
Additional Problems.......................................................................................................(360)
Chapter 17 Nucleic Acids ....................................................................................................(362)
17.1 Chemical Structure and Classification of Nucleic Acids .............................(362)
17.2 Nucleosides and Nucleotides...............................................................................(364)
17.3 The Hierarchy of Nucleic Acid Structure............................................................(367)
17.4 Physical and Chemical Properties of Nucleic Acids............................................(371)
Essay:The Human Genome Project .............................................................................(371)
Additional Problems.......................................................................................................(372)
Answers to In-Chapter and Additional Problems ..........................................................(374)
Brief Index ....................................................................................................................................(434)

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